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如何在雅思寫作TASK TWO中避免跑題(上)

2019-07-09 17:52     供稿單位: 新航道    

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  雅思大作文審題向來是中國考生的弱點, 甚至有考官曾表示 90% 的中國考生都存在審題的問題,但這一直都沒能引起學生太多的重視。我希望通過我們兩期的文章中所提到的一些審題注意事項對各位深受寫作提分難之苦的“烤鴨”有所幫助。

  跑題主要分成兩大類型,第一是偏離話題(off-topic),題目中要求討論城鄉差異, 結果學生寫成犯罪,這種情況不常見;第二是沒有完成任務(off-task),即考生沒有根據題目中的要求來回答。后面這種情況又分成兩類:完全離題和部分離題。


  先來看一個完全離題的例子:

  (2013-10-26) Some people think a rise in standard of living in a country only seems to benefit cities more than rural areas. What problems may those differences cause? How to reduce this problem?

  原題要求考生寫城鄉收入差異大會造成什么后果和如何應對,可據考官透漏,將近三分之二的中國考生寫成了原因加影響。究其原因,無非將原文中“cause”弄混了。同一情況今年再次出現:

  (2015-04-11) Nowadays, older people who need employment have to compete with younger people. What problems do this cause? And what are the solutions?

  這一問題其實不難解決,考生只要注意題干中 cause 即可,弄明白是名詞還是動詞,動詞的話是誰導致了誰,一般也不會再出問題。

  部分離題的情況就比較復雜了,個人分為以下幾種:


  一、丟三落四型

  這種跑題的情況有可能是沒有注意到原題干中的并列詞(and,or),比如以下這幾個題目:

  (2013-01-12) Children spend long time studying in school. What are the positive or negative effects on children and society they live in?

  (2015-01-29) Currently, some scientists or travelers like to travel to remote natural environment such as south pole. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

  (C9-T3) Some people say that the best way to improve public health is by increasing the number of sports facilities. Others, however, say that this would have little effect on public health and that other measures are required. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  前兩個題目中均是學生不小心忽略掉

  題干中某個并列的名詞( 已用下劃線標出);第三個來自于劍橋九第三篇,題干中并列的是兩個句子,也就是說如果考生認同題干中后者的觀點,則既要證明增加體育措施沒什么效果,還要證明有其他更好的措施存在,兩者缺一不可。

  當然,題干中也完全可以并列動詞, 題目請參考去年 12 月 6 號和 4 月 26 號兩場考試的題目:

  (2014-12-06) Some people think “vertical city”, where people live and work in high buildings is the best. Others think “horizontal city” is better, where there are few tall buildings. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  (2014-04-26) With the widespread of the Internet, many people choose to work and study at home instead of traveling to workplaces and colleges. Do you think the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?

  這種情況解決起來也很簡單,考生只要審題時劃出并列詞 and,or 即可。


  二、買櫝還珠型

  這類跑題考生的問題就是摸不清原文的虛實,討論了不該討論的東西,忽略了重點。這一般出現在題干內容較長時,解題的關鍵在于兩類邏輯關系的把握。先看這個題:

  (2014-10-25) Some people say job satisfaction is more important than job security. Others think people

  cannot always enjoy their jobs, so having a permanent job is more important. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

  在這里 “having a permanent job is more important”是重點,而“people cannot always enjoy their jobs” 則只是得出這一結論的原因??忌枰盐盏氖?,當題干中出現因果關系詞匯時, 討論的重點是結論,而非原因,當然該原因也應該在正文部分用上。此類話題在雅思原題中多次出現,一下是幾個簡單的例子:

  (2012-06-09) Some people think news is in no connection with people's lives; therefore, it is a complete waste of time to read the news in the newspaper or watch TV news. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  (2011-01-27) Some people think that it is necessary to travel abroad to learn about other countries, but other people think that it is not necessary to travel abroad because all the information can be seen at TV and the internet. Discuss both opinions and give your own opinion.

  除了因果關系,另一類易出錯的關系則是轉折關系。

  (2012-5-19) Food can be produced more cheaply today because of improved fertilizers and better machinery. However, some people think that the methods used to achieve this may have negative effects on human health and local communities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  一般來說,however 后面的是我們討論的重點,前面頂多算是一種背景。另外, 考生也要防止把此類情況看成雙方對立觀點,各自論證,也是跑題。


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